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英国培训给我的启示

  日期:2010年4月23日   点击数:25013   
【编者按】2010年11月19日,我校选派英语学科骨干教师陈雪云、丁建海两位老师随济宁市首批出国教育考察团赴英国约克圣约翰大学学习培训。在21天的培训学习中,两位老师废寝忘食、孜孜不倦、勤奋刻苦、广纳博取,表现出良好的学习品质和综合素养,展示了千盈国际app良好的教师形象,得到了约克圣约翰大学培训机构和济宁市教育考察团领导的高度评价。培训结束后,两位老师重点认真梳理了英国文化、教育和教学等方面的见闻、收获和感受,尤其是对现行中国英语教育教学又进行了可贵的反思和探索,这里展示的一篇文章就是陈雪云老师潜心思考的结晶,希望给我们的教育观、教学观、学生观以及成才观带来有益的启迪。
 
    2009年11月19日至12月10日,对我来说是一段终生难忘的日子,我有幸参加了市教育局组织的高中骨干英语教师出国培训。这次培训的主要内容是教学方法和教学技巧的学习,主要目的就是要提高自己的英语综合运用能力和教学能力。11月19日我们来到位于英格兰北部的一个城市York。York是英格兰一座美丽的古城。这里有直刺云霄的尖顶教堂,朗然入目的乡间别墅,舒展自如的大片绿地,游走其街道间犹如身临一幅幅风景美丽的写意画中。我们培训的York St John University就坐落在这个城市的中心。York St John University是面向国际的一所语言培训学院。其宗旨是Faculty of Business & Communication ,在这儿,我们可以见到各个国家的预科生、大学生、研究生,比如巴基斯坦人,黎巴嫩人、日本人、韩国人、非洲人,所以这儿有着很好的语言学习氛围。
    整个培训期间,学习、活动安排紧张而又充实。每天上午9:15—12:45,下午1:45—3:30上课,午休吃饭一小时。课堂上,我们用英语讨论、回答问题;课堂外,我们尽可能地多与当地人接触,多留心他们的发音和用法,同时也了解了英国的许多文化和风土人情。周末有参观活动,比如去剑桥大学、伦敦、爱丁堡,通过短期的学习游览,总体感觉英国是一个高度文明、风光怡人,生活闲适的国家。虽然学习时间不长,但感受很深,尤其在教学理念、教学方法和思路上品尝了一次耳目一新的丰盛精神大餐。
    在教学法方面,Jools老师借助于多媒体教学手段,全面、系统、细致地向我们传授了许多听、说、读、写四大技能的教学方法和技巧,精心巧妙地设计各种各样的教学活动,让我们亲身体验、感受并讨论利弊,让我们在学习的同时联系自己的教学实际,从体验和感悟中把握教与学的关系,从而能巧妙地把教和学结合起来,改进教学,使教学可以快乐而有效。
教学上感受最深最受启发的是:
一、 生动有趣的合作学习和讨论学习相得益彰
    二十一天的培训学习给我感受最深的就是老师始终把学生当作学习的主体。每个教学环节都是围绕引导学生如何去学而设计。合作学习和讨论学习是教学过程常用的学习方法。我们通常3-5个人一个小组围坐在大方桌旁。一节课一般是60分钟,教师只讲授15—20分钟,而把更多的时间交给我们,以小组合作学习和讨论学习为主。老师的作用体现在准备材料、设计问题、参与小组讨论、监督学习进展情况、解决我们遇到的学习困难等。我们有时独立思考,有时分工合作,有时热烈讨论甚至辩论。当然这种“讨论”并非是漫无边际或各执一词,而是要求我们通过讨论,尽可能达成共识,然后由一位组员代表本组发言。其他人则学会倾听他们的汇报、见解。如在讲授词汇教学的课堂上,老师把我们分成四个人一个小组,让我们首先选择如果你到你不说本国语的国家,下列的三本书你要带哪本:词典、短语书、语法参考书,选好后要与你的小组成员讨论并解释你为什么选这本书,它有什么用途;讨论你对语言学家Wilkins的The fact is that while without grammar very little can be conveyed , without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.在我们充分讨论之后,老师又呈现给我们三个不同的词,每个词都有不同方式的解释,我们仔细阅读一分钟后,老师又让我们讨论要想运用一个词你需要知道这个词的什么,上述讨论对教授词汇有什么作用等。第三步,展示给我们六种不同的词汇教法:
a   Beginners’ class
[Teacher holds up a picture of a doctor.]
T:  Listen : doctor---doctor. Say it.
Class: Doctor.
[Teacher holds up a picture of a nurse.]
T:  Listen: nurse---nurse. Now you. Say it for me.
Class: Nurse.
[Teacher writes doctor and nurse on the board.]
b   Beginners’ class
T : [Teacher points to the door] Look—the door is open—open.[Teacher closes the door.] Now the door is shut shut.[Teacher opens the door.] Open. [Teacher closes the door.] Shut. Now you. Say it.
S1: Open.
T:  No—look. Shut.
S1: Shut.
T: Good—everyone.
Class: Shut.
[Teacher opens the door.]
T:  Now.
Class: Open.
[Teacher writes open and shut on the board]
c   False beginners’ class
[Teacher holds up a picture of a pilot.]
T: Do you know what job this is ? What does this person do?
S1: In a plane.
T: Yeah, good, he flies a plane, but what is the word for his job?
S2: Driver.
T:  That’s good—we can say that for a car or a train ,but for a plane?
S2:  Pilot.
T: Good—that’s right—he’s a pilot.
[Teacher writes pilot on the board]
d   Elementary class
S1:  What means fruit/fri:t/?
T:   Pronunciation-/fru:t/ --like boat—can you say it?
S1:  Fruit/fru:t/
T:   Good—apples, oranges, bananas are types of fruit.
S1:  Oh, yeah, OK—thank you.
e    Intermediate class
S1:  Sorry , what does enormous mean?
T:   Does anyone know that word—enormous?
S2:  Big.
T:  Yeah, OK, just big? Or very big?
S3:  Very big.
T:   That’s right—very big.
[Teacher writes enormous on the board.]
f   Advanced class
S1:  It says flattery here. What’s that?
T:   It’s when you say nice things to someone usually because you want something from them.
 
 
 
How is the meaning conveyed?
Is the spoken from practiced?
How is the written form made clear?
a. Beginners’ class(1)
by using pictures
 
yes
 
The teacher writes it on the board.
b. Beginners’ class(2)
 
 
 
c. False beginners’ class
 
 
 
d. Elementary class
 
 
 
e. Intermediate class
 
 
 
f. Advanced class
 
 
 
   等我们看完了这些例子,老师就让我们小组讨论每种词汇教法的优劣并填出下列表格我认为这一系列的活动,为那些性格内向、不善言辞怕在公众场合发言的学生提供了一个相对安全的空间,至少有一个缓冲的过程,不至于直接暴露学生自身认为个体的不足,如语音语调、内容表达、或非专业上的如声音的洪亮程度、表达的流利程度、站立的姿势等而受到约束和感到不安。同伴之间有一种安全感,还可以从小组中得到某些帮助安慰,建立自信,从而更好地合作共同完成任务。在合作学习的过程中不仅课堂气氛显得十分生动、活泼,学生学会了倾听,学会了赞美,学会了批评,学会了接受,而且学生还展现了自我、认识了自我、完善了自我,使个性得到了和谐健康地发展,同时也培养了他们的独立思考、分析、推理、表达能力、合作能力和团队精神。
二、 灵活多样的课堂游戏让英语课流光溢彩,活力四射。
    课堂游戏是我培训中感觉耳目一新的又一课堂特色。每天的培训课上,我们都会在老师的指导下像小学生一样做着各式各样的游戏。如老师让每个人在纸上写出一个大家都知道或熟悉的人,然后把纸条贴在另外一个人的后背上,贴之前不要告诉他你所写的是谁,然后再让他去询问Am I YaoMing? Who am I? 被询问者看到纸条上所写的内容要回答是或不是,如果不是,要描述所写人的特征,以便询问者能够猜出。全班第一个猜出者为获胜者。每一次游戏都使我们群情激昂,迅速投入到游戏之中,角色的转变使我们全然忘记了自己的年龄、国内工作的压力,家庭的负担等忧愁,争先恐后地、非常认真地完成每一步。每次游戏结束,获胜者都欢呼跳跃,振臂高呼“I’m a winner.”通过体验,我深感课堂上设置游戏,不仅激活了课堂,培养了学生自主学习的能力,激发了学生的学习兴趣,使他们变成课堂的主体,而且还唤醒了学生的自觉性,启动了学生学习的内动力。因为没有教育的主体自觉,学生只能是一群被人驱赶的绵羊。课堂游戏正是以学生自己的活动为中心,学生能普遍动脑、动手、动口广泛地进行交流信息,处于自觉的主体地位,为学生积极探求知识、发展能力提供了广泛的空间和深度。课堂上设立游戏,不仅可以使学生在学习中享受到快乐,而且还可以发展学生的各项素质;不仅可以使我们的英语教学焕发出新的生命,而且还能够拓宽学生学习英语的新天地。在今后的教学中我将进行学习与模仿、探索与创新,让游戏走进课堂,让每堂英语课流光溢彩,活力四射。
三、 和谐融洽的师生关系,以学生为本的教学理念,使学生充满朝气和创造力。
   培训过程中第三个特别深的感受是教师教的过程与学生学的过程中相互适应、协调发展。和谐的师生关系,时时处处以学生为本的教学理念,营造了浓厚热情高涨的学习气氛,充分调动了学生各种智力因素和非智力因素,使学生不知不觉地积极投入到学习过程中,兴趣盎然地进行学习。如教室里的座位是较为随便放置的,根据教学内容需要,可以随时调整课桌的位置,老师通常不是十分严肃地站在前面讲课,而是较为随和地坐着,或站在学生中间,师生关系十分融洽;教学氛围也非常和谐,老师在讲课时学生如有问题可随时提问,学生可以坐在座位上举手发言,课堂如果需要上洗手间,不用给老师请假,直接悄悄出去即可。应对学生的提问或回答,老师永远是以商量的口吻,师生、生生之间是相互平等的,教与学是平等对话。老师很尊重学生的观点和回答。除了给以鼓励和赞扬外,一般不会给出“标准答案”。如第一堂课老师让我们做“brainstorm”她说“Romeo and Julia were found lying in a pool of water dead in the center of a house. On the floor there was glass. One of the windows of the house was broken. Tell me how they died. Please broaden your mind as far as you can.”我们都绞尽脑汁地思考着,有人说他们是自杀,有人说是谋杀,有人说是枪杀,各种猜测应有尽有,老师一边微笑,一边摇头,等我们每个人都发表完自己的看法和判断后,老师又给我们提示,Romeo and Julia 不是人,然后再让我们展开想象的翅膀,接下来的答案五花八门使老师开怀大笑,我们每个人也笑逐颜开,没有人因自己荒诞不切实际的猜测感到尴尬,这种课堂氛围出来的学生不是工厂一个模子的产品,他们都个性张扬,有自己的思维和观点。
    整个教学过程中老师总是以饱满的热情,把我们急需的问题作为她教学的主线,在讲授每个教法前,总是先考虑我们在国内大班教学的实际,让我们思索教学过程中常遇到的问题和困惑,我们是怎样进行教学的,然后根据我们的回答再分析我们教学的利弊,给出新的教学见解、教学方法。并以多种教学手段创设语言学习的情境、扩大语言的输入量;以清晰、准确到位的示范帮助我们理解、模仿、操练和活用语言;以教学活动的变化为依据,变换自身的角色;以紧凑合理、过渡自然的教学环节以及科学有序的训练,让我们在积极参与语言实践中扎实地掌握知识,形成技巧,感悟如何在自己的教学中发展学生的能力,使学生尝试成功,乐学会学,从而能够获得自己课堂教学的高效率。尽管我们的教学思路和方法与老师所讲的存在很大的差异和不足,但是由于老师的善解人意,我们从没有任何人因这样或那样的差距甚至教学中所存在的失误感到难堪。每堂课我们都信心十足,热情高涨,快乐而期待地享受着老师带给我们的精神食粮!
    短暂的培训让我有豁然开朗、茅塞顿开之感,澄清了许多以前在教学中遇到的认识模糊或有所争议的问题,扩大了英语知识储备,开阔了视野,给今后的英语教学提供了丰富的背景知识和新颖的思路。我会将所有所见、所闻、所感当作教学素材,把它们带进课堂,提高课堂教学的生动性和趣味性,激发学生学习英语的兴趣和动力,提高课堂教学效率。
 
 
 What the training in Britain impressed me most
Nov.19th---Dec.10th is an unforgettable time for me. I was lucky enough to attend the Jining Leading Senior High School Teachers on Training Program In York St John University. This training was to learn the British advanced teaching methods and teaching Methodology in order to improve our integrating skills of using the language and enhance our ability of teaching. On Nov.19th we arrived in the City of York, which lies in the north of England. York is a beautiful old city, where there is a national famous church: York Minister. York Minster is one of the great cathedrals of the world, which has its vast spaces, filled with music and revealing the human imagination at work on glass, stone, and other fabrics. And in York there are many typically-built houses, and you can see green grass and trees everywhere. Walking in the streets of the city is just like walking in a beautiful picture of magnificent scenery. The York St John University is located in the center of the city. York St John University is an international training university for language training, whose aim is for Faculty of Business & Communication, where we can meet students from all over the world: Pakistan, Lebanon, Japan, Korea, Africa and Arab. So here there is a better environment for language learning.
     During the training, we had a regular and rich colorful arrangement for both study and life. We had lessons from 9:15am to 12:45am and 1:4pm to 3:30pm. At noon we had an hour for break. In class, we discussed in English, asked and answered in English. After class, we tried our best to get in touch with the locals in order to learn from them not only in pronunciation but in English idioms and at the same time we can also know about the local cultures, customs and traditions. At the weekends we paid many visits to some British places, such as Cambridge, London, Scotland. Through the short training and visits, I thought Britain is a highly-civilized country with beautiful scenery and comfortable life. Although the time here was short and limited, I was deeply impressed and learned a lot, especially in teaching theory, teaching methods and methodology.   
In teaching methods, Miss Jools taught and showed us the methodology and skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing with the aid of multi-media in details, deliberately designed varieties of activities to make us take part in them, experience them and know about them and tell the advantages and disadvantages of teaching methods between theirs and ours. In this way we can improve our teaching ability and make our class lively and interesting and effective as well.  
What impressed me most in teaching methodology :
Lively and interesting co-operative learning and discussing groups
What impressed me most for the 21 days training is: students are always the focus of learning and teaching. Every step of the lesson is designed for how to make it easy for the students to learn. The whole teaching procedures are filled with co-operative learning and discussing learning. As students we 19 learners are usually divided into several groups with three or five people together. We just sat around the table and discussed what we should do and what ideas we had about each problem. The time of each period is about an hour, during which the teacher may give the lecture for 15 or 20 minutes and the rest of the time the students are given to communicate and discuss with each other. What the teacher should do before class and in class is just preparing for teaching materials, coming up with problems or questions, taking part in the group discussions, watching over the procedures, helping solve the difficulties the students meet in discussions and learning. Sometimes we thought over a problem by ourselves, sometimes we co-operated with each other and sometimes we had a heated discussion or argument. Of course, all that we did in class was under the instruction of rules of the activities and the requirements of the teacher. After the co-operation and discussion, each group may choose a member to give a speech about their opinions. The rest just sit there listen quietly and think Aabout what he or she is talking about. For example, once the teacher gave us a lecture on how to learn words. She divided us into five groups with four of us in each. First the teacher asked us to choose one type of book to take to a country where you don’t speak the language: a a dictionary b a phrase book c a grammar reference book Then compare ideas with your partner. Explain your choice. After that, the teacher asked us to work in groups of four and read the quotation and answer whether we agree with Wilkins and why or why not. The fact is that while without grammar very little can be conveyed , without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. After we had a full discussion, we were shown another activity to do: Read these entries from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. What information is given about: a the form of each word b the meaning of each word c the use of each word? Euphemism \ ju:femizm\ noun {c or u} a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word :“Senior citizen” is a euphemism for old person. eg, The article made so much use of euphemism that often its meaning was unclear. euphemistic |ju:fe’mistik| adj. euphemistically |ju:fe’mistikli| adv. Eyeball\\ verb INFORMAL to look closely at someone: He eyeballed me across the bar. Heady\\ adj. having a powerful effect, making you feel slightly drunk or excited: a heady wine| perfume eg. In the heady days of their youth, they thought anything was possible. Then ask us to discuss what it means to know a word and what the implications of the above for the teaching of vocabulary are. After all that, the teacher showed us six different teaching methods of words:
a   Beginners’ class
[Teacher holds up a picture of a doctor.]
T:  Listen : doctor---doctor. Say it.
Class: Doctor.
[Teacher holds up a picture of a nurse.]
T:  Listen: nurse---nurse. Now you. Say it for me.
Class: Nurse.
[Teacher writes doctor and nurse on the board.]
b   Beginners’ class
T : [Teacher points to the door] Look—the door is open—open.[Teacher closes the door.] Now the door is shut shut.[Teacher opens the door.] Open. [Teacher closes the door.] Shut. Now you. Say it.
S1: Open.
T:  No—look. Shut.
S1: Shut.
T: Good—everyone.
Class: Shut.
[Teacher opens the door.]
T:  Now.
Class: Open.
[Teacher writes open and shut on the board]
c   False beginners’ class
[Teacher holds up a picture of a pilot.]
T: Do you know what job this is ? What does this person do?
S1: In a plane.
T: Yeah, good, he flies a plane, but what is the word for his job?
S2: Driver.
T:  That’s good—we can say that for a car or a train ,but for a plane?
S2:  Pilot.
T: Good—that’s right—he’s a pilot.
[Teacher writes pilot on the board]
d   Elementary class
S1:  What means fruit/fri:t/?
T:   Pronunciation-/fru:t/ --like boat—can you say it?
S1:  Fruit/fru:t/
T:   Good—apples, oranges, bananas are types of fruit.
S1:  Oh, yeah, OK—thank you.
e    Intermediate class
S1:  Sorry , what does enormous mean?
T:   Does anyone know that word—enormous?
S2:  Big.
T:  Yeah, OK, just big? Or very big?
S3:  Very big.
T:   That’s right—very big.
[Teacher writes enormous on the board.]
f   Advanced class
S1:  It says flattery here. What’s that?
T:   It’s when you say nice things to someone usually because you want something from them.
After reading these examples, the teacher asked us to discuss in groups which method is better and fill in the blanks:
 
 
How is the meaning conveyed?
Is the spoken from practiced?
How is the written form made clear?
a. Beginners’ class(1)
by using pictures
 
yes
 
The teacher writes it on the board.
b. Beginners’ class(2)
 
 
 
c. False beginners’ class
 
 
 
d. Elementary class
 
 
 
e. Intermediate class
 
 
 
f. Advanced class
 
 
 
Through these activities, I think multilateral interaction between teachers and students or students and students in language teaching is the basis of completing the tasks. Individual inner demands can be satisfied by completing the tasks through cooperative learning. Teachers should require the students to finish some learning tasks in the form of group cooperation consciously. Take “interviewing people” for example, group member should decide on each role, such as reporter, note-taker, audience, speaker and so on. Each of them takes a different job and has his responsibility, interviewing, note-taking, checking and reporting to the class. After that, each group writes a report cooperatively. Such an activity needs both the cooperation between individuals and that between groups. Only in this way can a task be completed.
Flexible class games make the classes colorful and spiritual

Another most impressive character of the training for me is playing varied games in class. Every day when we had our training lessons, we played all kinds of games under the instruction of the teacher like pupils. For example, each of us is required to write a person we are familiar with or we know him or her well on a piece of paper and put the paper on the back of another person. Don’t tell him or her what is on the paper before attaching it onto his or her back and then ask him or her to ask the others “Am I Yao Ming? Who am I?” The person who is asked should answer YES or NO. If the answer is NO, he or she should describe the character or the appearance of the person on the paper in order to make the person to be guessed out. Whoever guessed out first would win the game. We were active in each game , forgetting our ages ,pressures, working and life loans. After each game, the winner always jumped with joy and shouted excitedly “I’m a winner.” By doing these games, I believe that how classroom environment is, influences to arouse students’ study interest seriously. The teachers should create relaxed and pleased study environment for the students. For attaining the aim, the teachers fill with hot liver, get into the classroom whole-heartedly. The students can have smiling on the face and kind eyes as well as good spirit. While, the teachers should have pure, unadulterated, tunnel and fluent spoken English, norm and beautiful writing, reasonable design on the blackboard and so on.
    For the sake of traditional teaching that downplay impression to people, the teachers fuse teaching in joy, action combination, combine studying and practice, teachers and students match. Before class, the teachers can also tell a joke or a byword with English that students can understand roughly according to content of course. Or students show their English conversation practices for three minutes, give freedom lectures, talk freely and sing an English song together. All the activities can arouse students’ interest and get ready for completing teaching and the students can transform their learned knowledge and gained skills into the abilities to use English in actual life.
Harmonious relationship between teachers and students and all teaching designs for students make the students full of high spirits and creative
    Another deep impression on me is the harmonious relationship between teachers and students and all teaching designs for students, which create a better studying environment and fully arouse the students’ interest in study and attract their attention which is much paid to the preparation of knowledge, abilities, information and culture background for completing tasks. The students are often made to be positive in learning style of accepting and imitating actively, so it is easy to form a situation in which teacher-students or student-student interact positively so as to reduce the efficiency of English acquisition. Take the teacher’s attitude towards the students for example, generally the teacher seldom stands in front of the blackboard, instead, she often stands among the desks and answer the students’ questions in time, while students may just sit in their chairs and ask or answer the teacher’s questions. The teacher always pays much more attention to the students’ questions and always gives a detailed answer carefully. Besides, the teacher often sings high praise and gives enough encouragement to the students for their correct answers. There is no standard answer for most questions. For example, in the first class, the teacher asked to do a brainstorm. She said “Romeo and Julia were found lying in a pool of water dead in the center of a house. On the floor there was glass. One of the windows of the house was broken. Tell me how they died. Please broaden your mind as far as you can.”All of us thought over and over heartedly, someone said they killed themselves, someone said they got murdered ,someone said they were shot by a gun. When we gave quite different guesses, the teacher just stood there smiling with his head shaking. After all of us had no good ideas about it, the teacher gave us some hints telling Romeo and Julia were people and then asked us to continue our guessing. When varieties of strange and unbelievable answers arose, the teacher burst into laughter and all of us broke into laughing. None of us felt embarrassed because of the foolish or stupid guesses. Everyone had a wide view and increase his imagination. This can also suit the students’ current level and benefit for the exploitation of the students’ potential.

In a word, I learnt a lot from this training and I think as a teacher, I’m supposed to constantly update my professional knowledge so as to meet the needs of English Curriculum. Therefore, I’m required to grasp the ideas, goals and contents of the English Curriculum Standard accurately, to use the theories of pedagogy and psychology to research into the law of language teaching, choose and adjust the teaching strategies according to students’ psychological characteristic and actual situations, use teaching skills and methods flexibly, master modern teaching technology, explore English teaching resources, understand the culture at home and abroad, reflect on the teaching constantly and try to be a creative teacher.

 

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