|首 页|学校概况| 领导讲话| 校园速递| 教学科研| 处室主页| 教师风采| 学生社团| 党建平台| 教工之家| 招考信息| 友好交流| 家校平台| 新疆部| 国际部| 纪委专栏| 校史办|
       栏目导航 网站首页>>友好交流>>教育考察

走进英伦 体验差异

  日期:2010年4月23日   点击数:24180   
【编者按】2010年11月19日,我校选派英语学科骨干教师陈雪云、丁建海两位老师随济宁市首批出国教育考察团赴英国约克圣约翰大学学习培训。在21天的培训学习中,两位老师废寝忘食、孜孜不倦、勤奋刻苦、广纳博取,表现出良好的学习品质和综合素养,展示了千盈国际app良好的教师形象,得到了约克圣约翰大学培训机构和济宁市教育考察团领导的高度评价。培训结束后,两位老师重点认真梳理了英国文化、教育和教学等方面的见闻、收获和感受,尤其是对现行中国英语教育教学又进行了可贵的反思和探索,这里展示的一篇文章就是丁建海老师潜心思考的结晶,希望给我们的教育观、教学观、学生观以及成才观带来有益的启迪。
 
    2009年11月底至12月初 ,作为济宁市中学英语教师赴英国培训团的一员,我来到英格兰东北部约克郡的中心城市--约克市,参加了约克圣约翰大学(York St. John University)语言培训中心的各项培训活动,期间在戴维埃利斯(David Ellis)校长的陪同下参观了约克高级中学(York High School),这让我有机会真切体验到英语国家在语言教学上的新理念、新教法,并有机会和在英学习的中国留学生进行交流;入住当地人家庭的这种住宿安排,也使我得以深入直观地了解英国文化和当地的风土人情;房东热情好客,同户还有哈萨克斯坦来英国学习的留学生,因此我结交了很多外国朋友,锻炼了口语,增进了友谊。赴英学习,时间虽短,感触颇深。在与英国同行们的接触过程中,我体会到文化冲击(Culture Shock)带来的困扰远远大于语言上的问题,其中最直观的就体现在中英教育文化的差异方面。下面我从四个方面来谈一下自己的感受。

一、教师与教材
  “尊师重教”,“一日为师,终生为父”,“书中自有颜如玉,书中自有黄金屋”,这样的成语和习语足以体现教师和书本在中国教育文化中不可动摇的神圣地位。在中国的师生关系中,无论是在学术还是在日常交往方面,学生永远是处于从属地位。对于学生而言,对老师的绝对服从就是尊师的体现。“尊师如尊父”。中国学生无法容忍西方学生同教师讲话时的那种平等的姿态,更不必说上课时迟到、嚼口香糖、把脚放到课桌上,甚至公开质疑教师的观点。然而,对于认为自己与学生处于平等地位的西方教师而言,上课迟到、公开批驳教师观点等类似的行为都是可以理解并且允许的。与大多数中国教师不同的是,西方教师认为能够大胆地对教师(甚至书本)的观点提出批判性的评论正是学术自主或是有独到学术见解的重要体现。
   中国传统观念认为书本中蕴藏着知识、智慧和真理。书本中的知识有待学生去挖掘并储存在脑海中。只要是写进书本中的就都是正确的,对于其正确性和精准性勿庸置疑。自古以来,怀疑、反对书本中的观点轻则会被看作是“炫耀、不自量力”,重则就是“胆大妄为”,甚至“背叛先人”。与此持不同观点的西方学者认为,收录在书本中的是事实、态度和观点,人们可以自由地解释这些事实,讨论这些观点,驳斥这些态度。书本是人们学习的工具,并不是学习的目标,因而毫无神圣可言。
二、课堂中心
   新课改实施前的中国课堂教学是以教师为中心的。在讲座式和讨论式的课堂中,学生更倾向于选择前者。学生希望教师能把关于一个主题的全部知识倾囊相授,而不愿让老师提太多的问题。在传统的中国课堂里,通常会看到老师贯穿始终、滔滔不绝地讲述而很少提问题。师生、生生之间的交流微乎其微。因此,英国教师往往认为中国学生在口头交流方面很被动,甚至很薄弱。在他们眼中,中国学生宁愿从事全班性的集体活动或是个人活动也不愿意参与小组活动。然而中国学生们自我认为很努力,很善于交际。因为他们彼此学习,互相帮助。而且认为自己在课堂上很积极,虽然不太主动活泼,但一直保持着和教师的同步思维。从这一点上,中国学生认为自己是积极配合的。存在的不足只是中国学生不太适应结对子、分组讨论之类的课堂交互活动罢了
    另外一个值得指出的就是“沉默是金”,“静水流深”等传统观念对中国学生的影响。与外向的西方人不同的是,很多中国学生不善张扬,甚至喜怒不形于色。这也正是为何外国人认为中国人“难以琢磨”的原因。“我们到课堂是为了听老师讲,而不是听其他同学讲课!”对于抱着这样观点的中国学生而言,小组讨论为那些喜欢“炫耀”的西方学生提供了绝佳的机会。久而久之,中国学生对这种“无意义、无收获”的课堂活动越来越反感,甚至认为这是一种“浪费时间”的体现。
     与教师为中心的课堂教学方式不同的是,英国的课堂教学方式是以学生为中心的。教与学在很大程度上取决于学生。课堂更像个讨论会场,教师以课堂宏观监控者和活动组织协调者的身份出现,讲得很少,把时间交给学生。教师不是费力地把一个问题解释得清清楚楚,而是设法引导学生自己去发现。在这样的课堂里,学生必须积极投入到活跃的思维当中去,热烈生动的讨论自然也就会时常发生了。当学生遇到很难理解的问题时,会立刻向教师提出疑问,教师会再次设法引导学生的思维,直到解决问题。师生之间的这种不断交流自然会对学生的学习大有裨益,同时也在很大程度上开发了学生独立思考的能力。
三、教学方法
   以英语教学为例,英国语言教师一直为中国学生扎实全面的语法基础知识和超凡的背诵能力而惊讶不已,同时也为他们不尽如人意的口语表达与质疑能力而深感沮丧。这一事实与我国的英语教学方法不无关系。正如前文所及,传统的中国教学模式基本上属于应试型的。英语教学也不例外,是基于逐字逐句讲解课文中所谓的”知识点”与句型之上的。我们的教师会花大量的时间同学生一起练习中、高考的应试技巧,通过搞“题海战术”帮助学生备考。
     相比而言,西方教育体制可以被称作是素质型的。教学的目标是为了提高学习者的素质,开发其分析、解决问题的能力。评价一个学生的能力并不是通过她/他是否在各种考试中取胜(事实上,英国的各种考试卷中,考试试题都是基础性的,要通过这样的考试是比较容易的),而是看他/她是否具备判断、解决实际问题的能力,进而使自己适应这个纷繁多变的社会。作为教师,首要任务就是激发学生的兴趣和好奇心,以使学生尽可能地独立思考并最大限度地发挥自己的创造力。
四、对学生及语言学习的定位   
在中国,由于受中考及高考指挥棒的影响,初高中英语教学都是围绕学生能否在升学考试中获得好成绩而进行的,学生的英语言综合运用能力是否得到提高是次要的,因此所有学生要学同样的英语课本,考同样的试卷。对于英语言学科,重视基础知识与基本词汇的反复训练,对语法及对常见句型的熟练应用,因此,学生变成了接受知识的容器,英语变成了可机械操练的学科、有应试技巧可循,而不是启迪思维的生活工具。
    在英国,每个学生被定位为一个个有不同思维、且能力有差异的个体,语言学科(如:学生可选学法语、德语、西班牙语)也不是可操练且也不必操练的学科,也不强求每个学生都要学好一门外国语,因此外国语课堂变成了学生思维活动的场所,而不只是趴在课桌上听讲、机械记忆及操练。英国的课堂对中国教师来讲,可概括为“条理性差、不严谨、缺少总结”,英国的学生对于中国学生来讲也是“太散漫、太随意”。   
    总之, 随着中西文化交流的日益加深,国与国、人与人之间的距离似乎在逐渐变小,但是我们必须承认中西方的文化差异会仍然存在并且将一直存在着。中英教育文化中的差异也绝非这几个方面的略述所能涵盖,“他山之石,可以攻玉”,英国教育界、同行们的教育思想、理念、做法有许多值得我们学习、借鉴。如何做好面对不同教育文化冲击的心理准备,加强中西方文化交流;结合国情,取长补短,因地制宜推动我国基础素质教育的深入改革、发展;这一切应是我们每一位基础教育工作者所思考的。
 
Luckily I had the chance to go to England to participate in the Professional Development Program for Senior Teachers from the end of November 2009 to early December, which was organized by Jining Education Bureau. York, the center of Yorkshire, a famous historic city of England, is our destination. During our stay in York, we studied in the International Center of York St.John University,where many good teachers gave us excellent lessons on Language, Study skills and Methodology. Also I got another good chance to visit York High school, guided by David Ellis, the headmaster. Thus all these did truly offer me the opportunities to experience the new ideas, new methods in language teaching and learning in English-speaking countries and to communicate both with the native speakers and some Chinese students. Home stay accommodation arrangement also made me deep intuitively know about British culture and the local conditions and customs; landlord hospitality and chatting with an air Colonel from Kazakhstan in the host family, talking with overseas students from various countries in the rest room in the University helped me make a lot of foreign friends, improving my oral English and promoting our mutual friendship. Our learning in UK is short ,but it made me think a lot. In contact with the British colleagues and local inhabitants, I realized that Culture Shock is far greater than the difficulties caused by the language, the most intuitive embodied in the Sino-British differences in aspects of education and culture. The following four aspects resulted from my observation and feeling.
 
First, teachers and teaching materials

“Respect teachers and attach importance to education”、 "day as a teacher, a lifetime father"、“there is anything in the book, including the beauty and property.” The sacred status unshakable for teachers and books in Chinese education is clearly reflected in these idioms. In China, as for the relationship between teachers and students in academic or in daily communication, the students are always in a subordinate position.
For students, the absolute obedience to teachers is a manifestation of respect. "Respect for teachers, such as respect for the father."
Chinese students can not tolerate the way western students talk with their teachers, not to mention their being late in class, chewing gum, putting their feet on the desks, and even publicly questioning the views of teachers. However, the western teachers who consider themselves with students in equal status think all these are understandable and permissible. The different opinions of western teachers from those of the majority of Chinese teachers are that students’critical comments towards teachers( or even books) just symbolize their original view and academic autonomy.
 
Traditionally in China, the books have a vast reservoir of knowledge, wisdom and truth. The knowledge is there for students to excavate and try to store in their mind. As long as it is written in the book, it should be right, for its accuracy and correctness is undoubted. Since ancient times, doubting and opposing the views ranging in books will be regarded as "showing off", " chutzpa " and even "betrayal of their ancestors.”
However, Western teachers hold different views on this issue, and they think what exists in books is the fact, attitude and opinions. People are free to interpret these facts, to discuss these ideas and refute these attitudes. The book is just a tool for people to learn with, not learning objectives, and thus there is nothing to be sacred and to be undoubted at all.
 
Second, the classroom centre
 
In China, the implementation of classroom teaching is teacher-centered before Quality Education and the New Curriculum Reform. Among the lecture-style and discussion-style class, Chinese students tend to choose the former. Students would prefer teachers to bring them all the knowledge about a subject, rather than ask them too many questions. In the traditional Chinese classroom, the teacher will be always holding forth about the textbook, rarely asking students questions, with very little
communication  between them. Therefore, British teachers often think that Chinese students are very passive, even weak in oral communication. In their eyes, Chinese students prefer to engage in the class of collective activities or personal activities while reluctant to participate in group activities. However, the Chinese students may consider themselves very hard-working, and very good at communication, because they can learn from each other, help each other, and be very active in class, keeping synchronization with teachers. The only shortcoming of the Chinese students might be their not adapting to group discussion and interaction activities.
 
That another should be mentioned is the effect on Chinese students brought by the Chinese traditional concepts "silence is golden", "still waters run deep". Contrary to the outgoing westerners, many Chinese students do not tend to flaunt and some even with poker faces, which is the reason why foreigners think Chinese people are "elusive". "We're in the classroom to listen to the teacher who are imparting knowledge to students, rather than listening to other students disorderly speak!", which is the idea shared by many Chinese students. However, group discussion provides an excellent opportunity for western students who like to “show off" in the classroom. Over time, Chinese students are getting sick of such kind of class activities , regarding them as “meaningless, no gain" and even considering these to be“a waste of time.”
 
Different from the teacher-centered teaching mode, classroom teaching in UK is student-centered. Teaching and learning largely depends on the students. Class is like a discussion, the teacher works in class for macro control ,activities organization and coordination. They advocate to leave the time to students. They try to guide students themselves to discover problems instead of making great efforts to explain them clearly. In this kind of class, students must be actively involved in thinking, so warm and lively discussion will naturally be carried out from time to time.
When confronted with problems very difficult to understand, students will go to the teacher for help. The teacher will guide the students' thinking once more, until the solution to the problem is found. This continuous
communication between teachers and students will not only have great benefit to students but also largely develop the students ability to think independently.
 
Third, teaching mode and teaching methods
 
In English teaching, for example, British teachers to teach languages were astonished with the fact that Chinese students had solid and comprehensive knowledge of grammar and excellent reciting ability, meanwhile they were deeply depressed for Chinese students’ poor oral expression and critical faculties. Maybe this is related with our English teaching methods. As mentioned above, the traditional Chinese teaching is basically test-orientated. English teaching is also no exception, based on word for word interpretation of the text about the so-called “language points ” and patterns. Our teachers will spend a lot of time practicing together with students for skills in the college and high school entrance exams, by engaging in "test-sea tactics" to help students.
 
Our biggest difference from British schools lies in the teaching methods: in UK schools, they adopt a small class-based teaching and individual counseling style. In this way, teachers can fully take account of each and every student. They respect the students and hold the idea that each student is important. Even those who have physical or intellectual disabilities can accept the same education with other children in ordinary schools. The British government will spend huge sums of money for each class to be equipped with specialized secondary teachers, these teachers  can provide guidance to students in need of special care after school.  In terms of individual student psychological health, personal tutoring  benefits a lot.
 
In teaching, their habit of using a teaching method is the team work or group assignments which reflect team spirit, that is, team members each are a part of the work ,respectively to complete a project co-operation. Such doing can adequately give full play to each team member’s knowledge or skill and mobilize their strength and advantage, thus strengthening the overall responsibility for the team. Also in the process, it can cultivate the cooperation consciousness of every team member and provide a good opportunity for each member to display his talent and experience the joy of success.

A typical team consists of four individuals, with re-combination from time to time. Normally it is in the form of small groups to complete the discussion of topics, and then the well-prepared groups can send representatives to go to presentation, other groups supplementing. This method can not only make every student in class boldly, heartily exchange opinions, but also cultivate their initiative to obtain knowledge, improving his/her self-learning, analysis , judgment, reasoning and  other thinking abilities. The teacher is just one organizer and provides the necessary guidance and help for students in the course of these activities.
 
In contrast, the Western education system can be described as the quality education style. The goal is to improve the quality of learners  and to develop their analytical, problem-solving ability. Evaluation of a student's capacity is not by her / his successes in all kinds of tests(in fact, in the United Kingdom, various examination papers are based in fundamentals, it is relatively easy to pass them) while the evaluation lies in whether he/she has judgment, the ability to solve practical problems, thus making themselves adapt to the diverse and changing society. As a teacher, the primary task is to arouse the students' interest and curiosity, in order to enable students to think independently as far as possible and to maximize their creativity.
 
Four, students and language learning
 
In China, due to the influence of the college entrance exam and high school entrance exam , English language teaching both in senior and junior schools is focused on the possibility for the applicants to get good grades in entrance exams. Whether the English proficiency of students is improved nor not goes secondary. Therefore, it exists commonly for all students to learn the same English language textbooks, to work at the same examination papers. As for the English subject, we comparatively emphasize the repeated training of basic knowledge and basic vocabulary, as well as the skilled application of grammar rules and common sentence patterns. Consequently, students become containers for receiving knowledge; English become as a subject mechanically-drilled, with examination techniques to follow, rather than the communicative tool to enlighten thinking.

In the UK, each student is defined as one that has different ways of thinking and the ability of individual differences. Language learning(such as French, German, Spanish ,optional to students) is not necessarily mechanically drilled, nor should every student be obliged to
master a foreign language. So language classrooms have become the places for students' thinking activities, not places for students' just lying on the desk listening, with mechanical memory and drills. But for Chinese teachers, Britain's classes can be summarized as "poor logic, not rigorous, and lacking in conclusion”; for Chinese students, British students are "too lax, too casual".
 
Anyhow, with the growing exchanges between Chinese and Western cultures,
the distance between peoples and countries seems to become smaller, but we must recognize the cultural differences between East and West will continue to exist and will always exist. The above-mentioned several aspects can not cover all the Sino-British educational and cultural differences. "Stones from other hills may serve to polish jade," and there are many worthy of our learning, reference in education ideas, concepts and practices from the British educational field and colleagues.How to make good psychological preparations to face the impact caused by different educations and cultures, enhancing cultural exchanges between East and West; How to combine with the Chinese situation ,learn from other's strong points to offset our own weakness and make foreign things serve China; How to promote the deepening reform and development of
our Basic Quality Education according to its actual and local conditions; All these should be what each one of our educators engaged in foundational education take into serious consideration.

| 关于我们 | 版权声明 | 网站管理 | 网站地图 
·上月关注人数:·本月关注人数:·关注本站总人数:
Copyright @2016 千亿城娱乐官网 版权所有 鲁ICP备09085130号 鲁公网安备 37080202000427号